Male infertility is defined as the male’s inability to cause pregnancy even though the male partner have had frequent unprotected sexual intercourse for a year or longer. In medical terminology, male infertility refers to the presence of abnormal semen parameters in the male partner who have been unable to conceive despite having regular sexual intercourse for the period of 1 year.
According to the World Health Organization, male infertility is defined as the presence of one or more abnormalities in the semen analysis, or the presence of inadequate sexual or ejaculatory function. Male infertility associated factor has been found together with abnormal sperm parameters in 50 percent of involuntarily childless couples, studies indicate. Male partner is asked to go for an evaluation through semen analysis that determines his fertility check.
Semen Analysis of a patient is done on an ejaculated sample collected after masturbation. This test is recommended to a patient after he has abstained from sexual activity for two to five days. Once the sample has been taken to the laboratory, it is analyzed for many different parameters, including fluid volume, sperm numbers, sperm motility (the percentage of moving sperm), and sperm morphology (the shape and appearance of the sperm).
Some of the major causes that contribute to male infertility treatment in India that comes after semen analysis report as:
Low Sperm Count
Low sperm count is one of the leading causes of male infertility. It always takes two to make a baby and a man has a leading role in pregnancy. Low sperm count means the semen, a man ejaculates during sexual intercourse contains fewer sperm than normal. The minimum sperm count required to get your partner pregnant is 20 million+ sperm per milliliter. For increasing the chances of getting your partner pregnant, the treatment of male factor infertility depends on the severity of the defect.
If the male partner’s semen contains few sperm or no sperm, abnormal sperm, or sperm with poor motility, assisted reproductive technologies (ART) can often help. These techniques offer hope to some infertile couples who could not achieve pregnancy without them.
Intrauterine insemination (IUI)
If there is a decrease in sperm number or function, intrauterine insemination (IUI) may allow conception to occur.
In vitro fertilization (IVF)
IVF is the most common used technique when the male partner is having low sperm count. Collected sperms are washed and then mixed with eggs thus to increase the chances of successful fertilization.
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection
For more severe sperm abnormalities of concentration, motility, or shape, fertilization is best assisted through direct sperm injection- Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI). This technique is used for patients with severely depressed sperm parameters; where sperm is aspirated directly from the epididymis or testicle; and in patients with low or failed fertilization on prior IVF attempts. The pregnancy rate with ICSI is approximately 40 to 60 percent per cycle.
Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration
If there is a complete absence of sperm in the ejaculate (azoospermia), due to a blockage of some kind, sperm can sometimes be directly removed from the testes. During the procedure, a fine needle is inserted into the epididymus, above the testis, and sperm may be obtained by gentle suction.
Testicular Sperm Aspiration (TESA)
If a male partner has no sperm within the ejaculate, due to defective sperm production, TESE is the best course of action. This technique involves taking a biopsy (tissue sample) through a small incision in the scrotum.
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